Partial Liquidations

A borrower’s loan must always be sufficiently capitalized above a Liquidation Threshold, i.e. Collateral Value * LVR(collateral) * LVR(lending asset). Loans that fall below the Liquidation Threshold may be subject to liquidation by Liquidators who repay part of the loan and in return receive a greater portion of the position’s collateral.

A loan’s Health Factor is a measure of its relation to the Liquidation Threshold. A Health Factor greater than one (1) indicates the loan is suitably capitalized above the Liquidation Threshold. A Health Factor less than one (1) indicates the loan is not suitably capitalized and is below the Liquidation Threshold.

A liquidation event incurs a Liquidator Fee. The Liquidator Fee is inversely proportional to the loan’s Health Factor. The lower the loan’s Health Factor, the greater the percentage reward that will be awarded to the liquidator. (Fringe's new partial liquidation model incentivizes liquidators to compete with one another to undertake a liquidation at the smallest possible increment, which will tend to minimize the liquidated amount and to minimize the liquidator fees charged to borrowers.)

Partial liquidations

Fringe v2 introduces partial liquidations. Partial liquidations allow for liquidations to only be undertaken up to a point above the position liquidation threshold - the Target Health Factor (this governance parameter is currently set to a health factor of 1.2, but may be adjusted over time to best assure efficient liquidations and platform stability). This gives borrowers more flexibility in managing their loans and mitigating risks. Partial liquidations are a significant development for Fringe Finance and will help to create a more efficient, stable, and attractive platform for both borrowers and lenders.

Partial liquidations provide a number of benefits, as follows:

  • Minimizes the impact to borrowers during liquidation events.

    • The way this minimizes impact to borrowers is by borrowers being charged only the liquidator reward fees associated with the partial liquidation to bring the loan back above the minimum collateralisation level.

    • Additionally, the borrower retains the remaining open loan or trading position they entered into and thus is still positioned according to their original intent (i.e. exposed to the upside potential of their collateral asset.)

  • Partial liquidations invite more liquidators to participate given lower secondary market liquidity requirements to dispose of collateral won in a liquidation. This makes Fringe’s liquidation process more efficient and aims to reduce the likelihood of positions becoming insolvent. This improves the Fringe platform’s stability.

The mechanisms for partial liquidations are as follows:

  1. Allow liquidators to choose the amount they wish to liquidate up to a MaxLA - Max Liquidation Amount.

    • MaxLA is the amount the position needs to be liquidated that will result in the loan position attaining the Target Health Factor.

    • MaxLA is calculated as described below in the heading MaxLA - MAX_LIQUIDATION_AMOUNT Calculation.

  2. Establishes a mechanism similar to an auction which increasingly incentivizes liquidators as the loan position’s Health Factor falls. The LRF - Liquidator Reward Factor is a function of the Health Factor, where a lower HF results in a higher LRF (not necessarily proportionally).

    • Once a partial liquidation occurs, the auction continues. LRF is still calculated as a function of the prevailing Health Factor.

    • To note, Fringe Lending's previous full-position liquidation model provided a liquidator reward of 7%.

    • To note: With this new liquidation model, there is no explicit auction process (like, say, DAI’s liquidation model.) Liquidators simply participate based on the prevailing LRF which is a function of the prevailing Health Factor.

      • Given there is no explicit auction process, there is no additional actor who needs to initiate an auction. i.e. there is no “two-step process” for liquidations, where a. an auction is initiated and b. a liquidation is undertaken. This is mentioned here just to distinguish Fringe’s model from the DAI model which requires an actor to initiate a liquidation auction. This represents a results in a simpler liquidation model which uses less gas, resulting in lower costs for borrowers, a more efficient liquidation process and greater stability and assurance for lenders.


  1. Any liquidator can liquidate up to the MaxLA.

  2. The borrower will still have an open loan position after the partial liquidation (in the majority of cases. See below.)

  3. If the liquidator liquidates an amount equal to MaxLA, the position will be returned to Target Health Factor. i.e. healthy, unliquidatable. (And if the liquidator liquidates an amount less than MaxLA, HF may be less than 1 and there remains an opportunity for another liquidator to perform a liquidation for another amount up to the newly-calculated MaxLA.)

  4. Fringe’s previous full liquidation model will not be applied to Fringe V2 and later.

    • Once this new partial liquidations model is implemented, it will not be possible for liquidators to expressly perform full liquidations via that retired facility.

    • However, it may be the case that a ‘full liquidation’ can occur via this new partial liquidation model.

      • The way this can occur is when MaxLA >= Outstanding loan value. I.e, if the new partial liquidation model results in a 'full liquidation' scenario, then this is permitted (via the new 'partial' liquidation model.)

      • I.e. Liq amount can be any value between and including MinLA & MaxLA, and if MaxLA > Outstanding Loan Value, then MaxLA = Loan value.

    For instructions on how to undertake liquidations using Fringe V2 partial liquidation model, see Liquidation Instructions.

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